biliary sand/microlithiasis precursor to stones cholecystitis, colic, pancreatitis Biliary sludge is a common finding on GB sonography. It is mainly comprised of calcium bilirubinate granules and lesser amounts of cholesterol crystals. It can be asymptomatic. Risk factors are rapid weight loss, gastric surgery, total parenteral nutrition (tpn) in fact you see it quite frequently in… Read More Gallbladder Sludge
Protocol image sequence (Right side only repeat images on left testis for complete protocol). Transverse Begin in transverse what’s know colloquially as the “twins” view. This view is great for determining quickly symmetry, position and echotexture. With color doppler you can determine whether there is testicular torsion. In cases of undescended testis you can show… Read More Testicular/Scrotal Doppler Protocol
Here is the protocol for the complete renal ultrasound. BLADDER Sagittal With a full bladder begin at midline and take right and left lateral images in sagittal. Measure the bladder wall per protocols or indication. A normal adult bladder can hold about 470 ml of urine or about 2 cups. TRANSVERSE Turning your transducer counter… Read More Renal Ultrasound Complete Protocol
The gallbladder is an oblong pear shaped structure located on the underside of the liver. It is located at the level of the middle hepatic vein aka Cantlie’s line between segments IV and V. The normal distended gallbladder is approximately 7-10 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The capacity is usually 50 ml(1.8 fl oz) of bile. The GB is divided into neck, body and fundus, sonographic appearance is anechoic with an echogenic wall.… Read More Gallbladder and Biliary Pathology
Sonographically the liver is usually divided into right and left lobes . However the liver is divided into 8 functional segments with the Couinaud classification (pronounced kwee-NO). Each segment has it’s own vascular and biliary supply. The liver is divided horizontally by the portal veins and vertically by the hepatic veins. Segment I is the caudate lobe.… Read More Couinaud’s Liver Segments
Hey there everyone, today we’re going to go on a journey, a sonographic journey through renal diseases reliably discovered via ultrasound.
… Read More Renal Pathology
Here is a quick video explaining the protocol. Liver Protocol basics. The liver is the largest internal organ, the right lobe is 5-6 times larger than the left. Normally measures about 15 cm at mid clavicular line in adults, there is much variation in pediatric populations by age and size.… Read More Liver Anatomy and Protocol
The gastrointestinal system (aka GI Tract, alimentary canal or digestive system) is a series of hollow tubes that begins in the mouth and ends in the anus. The primary function of the GI tract is to break down food into energy for the various metabolic processes involved with life. Digestion begins in the mouth, teeth… Read More Gastrointestinal Sonography
Fatty liver is a condition consisting of the accumulation of fat (triglycerides) in the form of vesicles within the livers hepatocytes. Fatty liver is divided into two subcategories; alcoholic fatty liver disease ALFD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD, though the clinical outcomes are nearly the same. The condition is also associated with other diseases… Read More Hepatic Steatosis (Fatty Liver)
References: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/175667-overview http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/171886-overview Liddle, Rodger A., et al. “Cholecystokinin bioactivity in human plasma. Molecular forms, responses to feeding, and relationship to gallbladder contraction.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 75.4 (1985): 1144. Stampfer, Meir J., et al. “Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 55.3 (1992): 652-658.