Nutcracker Phenomenon/Syndrome

IntroductionNutcracker syndrome was first described in the literature by El-Sadr and Mina in 1950 [1]. It is considered a vascular compression disorder akin to May-Thurner syndrome (left iliac vein is compressed by the right iliac artery) and Thoracic outlet syndrome (compression of the vessel of the upper extremity)[2]. In normal anatomy the left renal vein… Read More Nutcracker Phenomenon/Syndrome

Testicular/Scrotal Doppler Protocol

Protocol image sequence (Right side only repeat images on left testis for complete protocol). Transverse Begin in transverse what’s know colloquially as the “twins” view. This view is great for determining quickly symmetry, position and echotexture. With color doppler you can determine whether there is testicular torsion. In cases of undescended testis you can show… Read More Testicular/Scrotal Doppler Protocol

Gallbladder and Biliary Pathology

The gallbladder is an oblong pear shaped structure located on the underside of the liver. It is located at the level of the middle hepatic vein aka Cantlie’s line between segments IV and V. The normal distended gallbladder is approximately 7-10 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The capacity is usually 50 ml(1.8 fl oz) of bile. The GB is divided into neck, body and fundus, sonographic appearance is anechoic with an echogenic wall.… Read More Gallbladder and Biliary Pathology