Nutcracker Phenomenon/Syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder. The left renal vein courses in between the Aorta and Superior Mesenteric Artery(SMA). If the descent of the SMA is to steep and the aorto-mesenteric angle to acute (normal angle is 38–65°) this could lead to left renal vein compression and Nutcracker syndrome/phenomenon. The difference between Nutcracker syndrome… Read More Nutcracker Phenomenon/Syndrome

Testicular/Scrotal Doppler Protocol

Protocol image sequence (Right side only repeat images on left testis for complete protocol). Transverse Begin in transverse what’s know colloquially as the “twins” view. This view is great for determining quickly symmetry, position and echotexture. With color doppler you can determine whether there is testicular torsion. In cases of undescended testis you can show… Read More Testicular/Scrotal Doppler Protocol

Gallbladder and Biliary Pathology

The gallbladder is an oblong pear shaped structure located on the underside of the liver. It is located at the level of the middle hepatic vein aka Cantlie’s line between segments IV and V. The normal distended gallbladder is approximately 7-10 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The capacity is usually 50 ml(1.8 fl oz) of bile. The GB is divided into neck, body and fundus, sonographic appearance is anechoic with an echogenic wall.… Read More Gallbladder and Biliary Pathology